A Report Based on the Monitoring of 78 Government irls’ Primary Schools in April 2011
Forty-five percent of the government girls’ primary schools monitored by FAFEN in April 2011 lacked clean drinking water for students. This crucial arrangement was not available in 35 of the 78 monitored schools – eight in Punjab, 11 in Sindh, 12 in KP and in all the four schools monitored in Balochistan.
Non-availability of clean drinking water is a cause for concern since girls stand at risk of dehydration, especially as it is unlikely that they would be allowed off the premises to fetch water from surrounding areas. In any event, it is a requirement that clean drinking water is present on the premises of all state-run educational institutes.
The monitored schools were also lacking in support and sanitation staff. This non-teaching staff is essential as it not only provides assistance to teachers and students but also helps in maintaining school cleanliness. However, 50% of the schools did not have a peon and 88% lacked a serving sanitary worker. Though the support and sanitation staff was lacking in most of the monitored schools, the classrooms of 85% of schools were found to be clean. It is possible that due to absence of non-teaching staff the responsibility of keeping the classrooms clean was taken up either by the students or by the teachers themselves.
Despite deteriorating law and order situation and a constant threat to girls’ educational institutes by militants and other extremist forces, only 27% of the 78 monitored government girls’ primary schools were provided with a security guard. Twenty-one schools monitored in Punjab, 18 in KP, 14 in Sindh and all the four monitored schools in Balochistan did not have security guards. With areas like KP and Balochistan affected by militancy and insurgency, the security of educational institutes should be of prime importance to the government.
Facilities for students and teachers were also lacking as half of the monitored schools did not have chairs and tables for students and 20% lacked this furniture for teachers. As many as 55% of the monitored schools did not have playgrounds for students, while staff rooms were available for female teachers in only 24% of the monitored schools. However, facilities like electricity and fans were provided in more than 70% of the monitored schools while black/white boards were available in 95% of schools. Moreover, almost all the schools were observed to be housed in proper buildings.
The highest number of students per teacher was observed in schools in KP, where on average one teacher was responsible for a class of 43 students. The lowest student-teacher ratio of 31:1 was observed in the schools monitored in Balochistan. In Punjab and Sindh the average student-teacher ratios stood at 37:1 and 34:1 respectively.
FAFEN Governance Monitors visited 78 government girls’ primary schools in 52 districts of four provinces. Thirty-one schools were monitored in 19 districts of Punjab, 26 in 17 districts of KP, 17 in 12 districts of Sindh and four schools in as many districts of Balochistan.
- Buildings and Facilities
All the monitored schools, except for one school each in Punjab and KP, were housed in a proper building. Sixty-nine (or 88%) of monitored schools also had a boundary wall surrounding the building. The schools that lacked a boundary wall included five schools in Punjab and two each in Sindh and KP.
FAFEN Governance Monitors observed that the classrooms of 85% of the 78 monitored schools were clean. Six monitored schools of KP, three of Punjab, two of Sindh and one of Balochistan were among the 12 schools monitored nationwide that did not have clean classrooms.
Several schools were deficient in necessary furniture for students as well as for teachers. Half of the 78 monitored schools did not have chairs and tables for students and 20% schools lacked this furniture for teachers. Sixteen schools in Punjab, two in Sindh, 17 in KP and all the four monitored schools in Balochistan lacked chairs and tables for the students. Furniture for teachers was lacking in eight schools of Punjab, four of Sindh and two schools each in KP and Balochistan. Except for two schools in KP and one each in Punjab and Sindh, all the monitored schools had a black/white board available in the class.
Electricity connections were available in about three-fourths (76%) of the monitored government girls’ primary schools while fans were also available in 73% of the monitored schools. It was also observed that the classrooms of 79% of the monitored schools were well lit.
Forty-five percent of the monitored schools lacked the arrangement of clean drinking water for the students. This crucial arrangement was not available in eight of the monitored schools in Punjab, eleven in Sindh, 12 in KP and in all of the four monitored schools in Balochistan.
Some other facilities were also lacking in the monitored schools. As many as 55% of the schools lacked playgrounds, restricting students to indoor activities. Twenty schools in Punjab, seven in Sindh, 13 in KP and three schools in Balochistan did not have playgrounds for students. An even higher lack was observed in the availability of staff rooms for the teachers as only 19 of the 78 monitored schools had a staff room available for the female teachers. The schools that lacked this facility included 22 of the monitored schools in Punjab, 12 in Sindh, 21 in KP and all the monitored schools in Balochistan.
Table 1: Buildings and Facilities in Girls’ Primary Schools by Region
|Sr. No.||Buildings and Facilities||Province||Punjab||Sindh||KP||Balochistan||Total|
|1||The classrooms are clean.||Yes||28||15||20||3||66|
|2||The school is housed in a building.||Yes||30||17||25||4||76|
|3||There is a boundary wall around the school building.||Yes||26||15||24||4||69|
|4||All classrooms are well lit.||Yes||27||14||18||3||62|
|5||All classrooms have desks and chairs for students.||Yes||15||15||9||0||39|
|6||All the class rooms have black (white) boards.||Yes||30||16||24||4||74|
|7||Class rooms have chair and table for teachers.||Yes||23||13||24||2||62|
|8||The school had clean drinking water arrangements for students.||Yes||23||6||14||0||43|
|9||The school has electricity.||Yes||27||10||20||2||59|
|10||The school has fans in all class-rooms.||Yes||25||11||19||2||57|
|11||The school has playground for students.||Yes||11||10||13||1||35|
|12||The school has staff room for teachers.||Yes||9||5||5||0||19|
- Teaching Posts
Of the 78 monitored government girls’ primary schools, 70 provided information regarding the sanctioned teaching posts and the number of teachers posted in the school. Among those that provided information, it was observed that on average 10% of 180 the teaching posts were lying vacant.
Occupancy rates were notably low in Sindh, as 29% of the 48 sanctioned posts were lying vacant in the 11 schools that provided information in this regard. In Punjab, 152 posts were filled against165 sanctioned teaching posts in 31 schools that provided information. The vacant teaching posts (13) made about 8% of the total sanctioned posts in Punjab, whereas in KP the vacant teaching posts (9) made about 7% of the total sanctioned posts in the region. However, in Balochistan teachers were Appointed against all the sanctioned teaching posts in the monitored schools.
Table 2: Teaching Posts in Girls’ Primary Schools by Region
|Sr. No.||Province||Number of Sanctioned Teaching Post||Number of Teachers posted in the School||Vacant Teaching Posts (%)||Institutes Sharing Information|
- Non-Teaching Posts
Transparency surfaced as a major issue in the girls’ primary schools, as 24 schools declined to provide information about the number of non-teaching staff (posted or sanctioned). Based on the data of these 54 schools, 10% of the sanctioned posts were lying vacant.
Similar to findings regarding occupancy rates of teaching staff, lowest occupancy rates of non-teaching staff were observed in Sindh, where 20% posts were lying vacant. In the seven schools in Sindh, which provided information in this regard, 12 posts were filled against the sanctioned 15.
In Punjab, 12% of the sanctioned posts of non-teaching staff were lying vacant as 23 posts were filled against the sanctioned 26. Ten schools in Punjab declined to provide information in this regard.
As many as 29 posts were filled against the sanctioned 30 in KP, leaving 3% of the sanctioned posts vacant. A school in KP did not provide any information regarding the non-teaching staff in the school.
Only one of the monitored four schools in Balochistan provided information about the non-teaching staff. Both the sanctioned posts were occupied in the school that provided information.
Table 3.1: Non-Teaching Posts in Girls’ Primary Schools by Region
|Sr. No.||Province||Number of Sanctioned Posts for Non-Teaching Staff||Number of Non-Teaching Staff Posted in the School||Vacant Non-Teaching Post (%)||Institutes Sharing Information|
Regarding specific non-teaching posts, half of the monitored girls’ primary schools did not have a peon and 88% were without sweepers. Furthermore, despite deteriorating law and order situation and a constant threat to girls’ educational institutes by militants and other extremist forces, only 27% of the government girls’ primary schools were provided with a security guard. Those without security guards included all the four monitored schools in Balochistan, 82% of those monitored in Sindh, 69% in KP and 68% in Punjab.
Table 3.2: Non-Teaching Staff at Girls’ Primary Schools by Region
|Sr. No.||Non-Teaching Staff||Province||Punjab||Sindh||KP||Balochistan||Total|
|1||The school has peon.||Yes||11||9||18||1||39|
|2||The school has security guard.||Yes||10||3||8|
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